Information of the Electron lenses
Electron lenses are designed to act in a manner emulating that of an optical lens, by focusing parallel electrons at some constant focal distance. Electron lenses may operate electrostatically or magnetically.
The majority of electron lenses for TEM use electromagnetic coils to generate a convex lens.
The field produced for the lens must be radially symmetrical, as deviation from the radial symmetry of the magnetic lens causes aberrations such as astigmatism, and worsens spherical and chromatic aberration.
Electron lenses are manufactured from iron, iron-cobalt or nickel cobalt alloys, such as permalloy. These are selected for their magnetic properties, such as magnetic saturation, hysteresis and permeability.